Thursday, August 22, 2019

Evolution And Extinction Essay Example for Free

Evolution And Extinction Essay Evolution describes the progressive stages by which organisms existing today have emerged through processes of specialization, adaption and natural selection, from their pre-existing ancestors; it is the significant change in the traits of a population over several generations. On the other hand, extinction of a species of organism is the total disappearance of such forms of life from the surface of the earth due to inability to adapt. Â  The concept of f extinction and fossil development are closely interwoven. It is so important to the support of evolution that Charles Darwin expects that the ‘missing fossils’ would one day emerge as the ‘strongest support’ for the theory he propounded; the theory of evolution by natural selection. The point is that without extinction, there would be no fossils. In the absence of fossils, it readily becomes difficult to relate species ancestor to the existing organisms for the purpose of establishing an unequivocal evolutionary link. Evolution has generated a lot of controversy in contemporary times as it attempts to remove the Creationist theory from its vantage and highly exalted position. It is a thoughtful concept on the origin of living organism that has been supported by Developmental similarities [ascribed to the work of Ernest Haeckel], chromosomal similarities among mammals and primates [e.g. man and chimpanzee], fossil records, biochemical and anatomical similarities such as vestigial organs. Of these, fossil records are the most important since they create the needed link to substantiate evolution. Before reaching forth to connect and disconnect evolution and extinction, it is essential to note that: In the beginning, life was simple and over time, complexities came into view. As a result organisms perpetually attempt to become better suited to the prevailing environmental conditions and demands. Organisms who can effectively develop appropriate features survive i.e. they adapt and those who can not, die. This is the concept of ‘the survival of the fittest’. The newly evolved organism with better adaptation mechanisms produce offsprings much better suited by transfer of such positive and inheritable characters encoded in genes. When conditions change again, evolution occurs for the sustenance of life. Those who do not cope, die and their species progressively disappear. It is this cycle of evolution and extinction that is acclaimed to have maintained living organisms on the Earth. EVOLUTION VERSUS EXTINCTION From the aforementioned facts, it is clear that the two concepts are in a way, mutually interdependent. The progressive emergence of present-day horse from its evolutionary ancestors has been confirmed by fossil discovery and analysis. Same applies to man’s appearance as Homo sapiens. Â  In the examples, the ancestral species have gone into extinction. Their fossils were however discovered. A detailed analysis of these fossils, placing them side by side has made it possible to trace the evolution of horses and man; for man, from extinct Homo habilis through H. erectus to the present day Homo sapiens. This complementation has been achieved thus: detailed study and analysis of the different aspects of the fossil [anatomical, biochemical, and sometimes pathological], and comparing of findings to same properties of existing species has led to the conclusion that speciation and specialization occurred, necessitated by the need for survival. In contrast, if extinction points to the fact that evolution has possibly occurred, what about the ‘missing links’. This is an area that has made the belief in evolution a rather Herculean adventure. If organisms are claimed to have evolved over time, then, there has to fossils for the proposed ancestors. This is particularly important in the case of links i.e. species that combined the properties of two related members of a genus. If these links are absent, evolution raises more questions than it can answer. In this vein, one may look at Extinction as a natural solution to the problems of congestion. It appears to relieve the ecosystem of the burden of many lives. Imagine the congestion and its concomitant intense competition for space that would have resulted if extinction did not occur. The earth would have been in serious turmoil and life would intolerable. On the other hand, evolution shows the capacity that nature has to become suited to sustain life. It evidently relates a potent idea: nature is self-sustaining. It can adapt to changes effectively, and produce same or better results from prevailing conditions.

TH Empire Ltd Essay Example for Free

TH Empire Ltd Essay To whom it may concern: It is with great pleasure to provide you with a summary about our business and our operations. TH Empire Ltd. is a British trading company that was established in 1995 and was incorporated in 2008 under the rules and laws of the United Kingdom. TH Empire Ltd. is based in the United Kingdom and is operating across the Middle East and other wider regions. The company has been successful in the market with a 10 year experience and is expanding its business in the region The core business of our company is the provision of market research consultancy and presentation, including provision of marketing services with great emphasis on construction, oil field industry and marine works. It has operations in all the Gulf Regions and Middle East markets, with recent expansion in Europe and UK. TH Empire Ltd has an established connection with companies, related to construction of bridges, towers, roads and hotels. It is also involved in oil services such as drilling, maintenance and air pollution control, with great experience in digital mapping, geophysical surveying, and oil exploration with agencies throughout the Middle East. We are also developing relationships with various chambers of commerce and professional unions to liaise us with our corporate clients. We are actively taking part in all major construction, oil field service and marine works events worldwide, sharing our ideas and innovations, refining our expertise to provide leading edge solutions to our clients. Â  We organize our tools and expertise to elaborate customized solutions to meet the needs and targets of our clients. We provide Representation services, Communication strategies and media relations, Promotional materials production, Event and exhibition management, Sales and branches offices opening, Agent network development, Liaison with Middle Eastern and international institutions. If your company is interested to start business with us; kindly send us your company’s activities and catalogues including the services you provide for the negotiation process to begin. Note: We are looking for huge companies (undertaking huge projects) with efficient business procedures and are interested in the aforementioned services Business will be in Libya and Saudi Arabia Waiting for your reply Thank you

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Acer Company: Overview and Analysis

Acer Company: Overview and Analysis 1.0 Acer company profile Acer Incorporated is a Taiwan-based multinational electronics manufacturer. Its product includes laptops, desktops as well as servers and storage, personal digital assistance (PDA), peripherals, peripherals and e-business services for government, business, education, and home users. Acer is the third largest computer manufacturer in the world behind HP and Dell. The company also owns the largest franchised computer retail chain in Taipei, Taiwan. Acer was founded by Stan Shih, his wife Carolyn Yeh, and a group of five others as Multitech in 1976. The company was renamed Acer in 1987. It began with eleven employees and US$25,000 in capital. Initially, it was primarily a distributor of electronic parts and a consultant in the use of microprocessor technologies, but over time it began to develop as a PC manufacturer. The global headquarters is located in Hsinchu City, Taiwan. Acer began its foray into laptops with the purchase of Texas Instruments mobile PC division in 1997. In 2000, Ac er spun off its manufacturing operations as Wistron Corporation, to focus on sales and marketing of their core brand. Acer grew worldwide while simultaneously minimizing its labour force by identifying and using marketing strategies that best utilized their existing distribution channels. By 2005, Acer employed a scant 7,800 people worldwide. Revenues rose from US$4.9 billion in 2003 to US$11.31 billion in 2006. Acers North American market share has slipped over the past few years, while in contrast, European market share has risen. On August 27, 2007, Acer announced plans to acquire its US-based rival Gateway Inc. for US$710 million. Acers chairman, J.T. Wang, stated that the acquisition completes Acers global footprint, by strengthening our US presence. In January 2008, Acer announced that it had acquired a controlling interest of 75% of Packard Bell. The Acer 4Group is a family of four brands Acer, Gateway, Packard Bell and eMachines. This unique multi-brand strategy allows each brand to offer a unique set of brand characteristics that targets different customer needs in the global PC market. Today, the Acer Group still strives to break the barriers between people and technology. Its one of the worlds top 3 companies for total PC shipments, is No. 2 for notebooks. 4The successful mergers of Gateway Inc. (October 2007) and Packard Bell Inc. (March 2008) by parent company, Acer Inc., completes the groups global footprint by further strengthening its presence in the U.S. and Europe. Gateway was founded by Ted Waitt in 1985 in an Iowa farmhouse with a US7$10,000 loan guaranteed by his grandmother, a rented computer and a three- page business plan. Today, Gateway has grown into one of Americas best- known PC brands. The brand 7received national acclaim in 1991 when it introduced its distinctive cow-spotted boxes, a tribute to its farming heritage. In early 2004, Gateway acquired eMachines, and later 7moved its headquarters to Irvine, California. In October 2007, Gateway was acquired by Taiwan-based Acer, and the combined entities now comprise the third-largest PC Company in th e world. EMachines, one of the 14worlds fastest growing PC brands, was acquired by Gateway Inc. in March 2004. Marketed to families seeking reliable machines for everyday use, eMachines brings the PC to any and every home in need. 14It remains a stand-alone brand sold through leading retailers, e-tailers and channel partners in the U.S. and selects international markets. 5Packard Bell is one of the rare ones. The brand was born in 1926. In the 1920s and 1930s when radio was all the rage, Packard Bell emerged as a popular brand of console radios with a reputation for elegant design.  The first Packard Bell television sets were launched in 1948, just as the TV revolution was sweeping the world. Fast forward to the end of the 1980s, Packard Bell entered the personal computer market in 1987. It 5pioneered the use of the PC in the home, transforming an unfriendly but useful office tool into a friendly, indispensable feature of todays modern home. The Acer Group CEO and Acer Inc. Chairman, J.T. Wang is tasked with overseeing the groups global competitiveness. Since he assumed chairmanship in 2005, Acer Inc.s consolidated revenues grew from US$9.7 billion to US$14.1 billion in 2007. As the worlds No. 3 vendor for total PCs and No. 2 for notebooks, Acer has set its next goal on becoming the worlds No. 1 notebook vendor. Wangs promotion to Acer Group CEO in June 2008 will ensure smooth integration following the successful mergers of Gateway and Packard Bell and future growth of the group. Wang 17holds a bachelors degree in electrical engineering from National Taiwan University and an Executive MBA from Taiwans National Cheng-Chi University. He and his wife have two daughters. 2Gianfranco Lanci, president of Acer Inc. since 2005, assumed duo responsibilities as the company CEO in June 2008 an acknowledgement of his outstanding management. Under his performance-driven leadership, Lancis focus is to enhance the Acer Groups presence globally under a new multi-brand strategy following the recent acquisitions of Gateway and Packard Bell. After Lancis appointment 12as managing director of Acer Italy in 1997, he 12immediately began consolidating the channel- and partner- relations at all levels. His commitment to brand promotion has made Acer the No. 1 ranking notebook brand in Italy since 1997. 2In 2003 Lanci was appointed president of Acers International Operations Business Group, allowing him to be directly involved in the Pan-American market. The designation confirmed Acers acknowledgement of his outstanding channel management and marketing activities, as well as the key role he played for Acers success in EMEA. 3ISO Management System Acer is an ISO 9001 and 14001 certified company, meaning their quality control and environmental management systems meet international standards. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) was established in Geneva, Switzerland in February 1947 with the goal to pro mote standardization of related activities in all countries around the world. ISO9001 is primarily concerned with quality management and fulfilment of customer demands for quality. ISO 14001 is primarily concerned with the voluntary establishment of environmental management systems (EMS) specially suited to each company. Each EMS should work to achieve sustainable management through voluntary and sustained improvement of environmental performance by means of pollution prevention and proper management. Acers Quality Policy 18Acers quality policy places an emphasis on delivering zero-defect, competitive products and services to customers on time. The motto proud to serve, proud of Acer shows our commitment to providing professional services. Acer Environmental, Health and Safety Policy As a global IT company focused on marketing and service, Acer endeavours to achieve balanced development in economy, environment and society. They are devoted to environmental protection. 2007/2008 Environmental Objectives The 5 environmental objectives are EMS, Green Product Development, Product Recycling and Treatment Services, Green Supply Chain and Strengthen Environmental Communication Platform. Social Welfare 8Founded in July 1996, the Acer Foundation was established through donations from personnel of various depa rtments throughout the company. Acer Foundations mission is threefold: research and develop technology and management; cultivate talents; and reward and promote service. Strategic Sponsorships Acer has always believed that sports and technology share the same ideals: strength, passion, competitiveness, coherence, skill and the determination to overcome new challenges. Their ability to identify strategically- favourable alliances has also helped make our brands recognized outside the IT industry. Acer has sponsor several events such as the Olympic, Scuderia Ferrari, F.C. International Milano and Yamaha Factory Racing Team. 2.0 Porters Analysis The Porters 5 forces is a simple tool but powerful enough to understand where powers lies in a business situation. Porter have introduce that 5 forces that is 6the bargaining power of customers, the threat of the entry of new competitors, the threat of substitute products, the intensity of competitive rivalry and the bargaining power of suppliers. The bargaining power of customers means the ability of the customers to put the firm under pressure to change the price of the goods and also affects the customers sensitivity to price changes. The customer bargaining power will be high when there a large volume of customers buying the product means theres is concentration of buyers, if these large group of buyer stop buying the product the company will be making a loss of the market share will also making a loss in the profit. The second factor would be the product is undifferentiated and can be replaces by substitutes means the customer can buy the same product from the other manufacturer . Acer substitute would be hp and Dell and Lenovo because they do manufacturer laptop and desktop. But Acer has come out with a very unique line of product that is the Acer Timeline Series, this series offer the screen size from 13.3 inch to 15.6 inch. The threat of the entry of new competitors means the barriers of entering into the industry. There are several things the company needs to be considering before going into any industry that is the high exit costs, interrelated businesses and customer loyalty. There will be high exit cost due to a lot of machinery need to be setups for manufacturing laptop and desktop all this setup need a large amount of money and when the manufacturer tends to leave the business it will lost all of this capital and asset unless he decide to sell those machinery to the other company this well lower down the exit cost. Interrelated businesses means there will be other manufacturer doing the same product as you are manufacturing, means they will be your competitor in the market. Customer loyalty means customer would like to stay with the brand they are using at the moment, this may be the company is doing a really good in after sales service. For example their product like Acer has a 3 year warranty for the laptop, while others rand doesnt provide this service for their customer. The threat of substitute products means the customer can find the product that almost has the same function with your company product. This may be due to the product you are selling is too expensive or the price is not reasonable thus making the customer to buy the product from other manufacturer. The other factor may be current trends now days people like to follow on the latest trend or so called fashion. Acer has come out with the trendiest laptop that is thin and long life time for the battery that can up to 8 hours. That is the Acer Timeline Series it does not only have 8hours of battery life, it also ultra thin that less than 1 inch, that makes conv enient for people to bring along anywhere, it also has multi gesture touch pad which can used like a mouse and also has a HD(high definition) which is as high as 16:9. We can see how it looks like in appendix 1 for the Acer Timeline Series. The Acer Timeline Series will cost from RM 2,000.00 to RM 3,250.00. Even though Apple has come out with the Macbook air but it still doesnt get a lot of attention due to it expensive price its price starts from RM 5,599.00 to RM 6,799.00 and it does not have a long battery life. By referring to appendix 2 we can see how a Macbook Air looks like. Sony has recently launched on 10th November 2009, but it price starts from RM 3,999.00 to RM 5,299.00. We can see how the Sony VAIO X looks like in appendix 3. Overall from the price review Acer Timeline Series still leading ahead of Macbook Air and the Sony VAIO X due to the price. The intensity of competitive rivalry in most industries the intensity of competitive rivalry is the major determinant of the competitiveness of the industry. By sustaining in the market a manufacturer has to make improvement or come out with new products that the other manufacturer does not manufacture or the product can be environmental friendly because now people want things that can reduce rubbish or wastage. Thus this will lead to a high barrier to exit. Acer has been doing this through manufacturing the Acer Timeline Series that allows a long battery life up to 8hours. Acer notebook pc market share in Europe increased in the third quarter of 2004, versus 11.4 percent in the third quarter of 2003. The bargaining power of suppliers is described as the market inputs. Supplier bargaining power will be high when the market is dominated or monopoly by one or a few suppliers. Thus when the supplier refuse to supply goods to the manufacturer the whole manufacturing process will stop. For example Acer main processor supplier will be AMD and Intel. If both of these suppliers simultaneously increase their pric e and Acer has no choice either to continue to buy the processor from them. This will lead the product of Acer to increase the price due to more expensive on processor if this happens consumer will tend to buy other brand of laptop or desktop thus Acer has loss part of its market share. To mitigate the power of supplier is to build win-win relationships with suppliers or arrange to use multiple suppliers. By making a win-win situation we can pay advance payment or pay the debt on time. 3.0 Limitation of the Porters analysis In the Porters analysis it has introduce the 5 forces that is the 6bargaining power of customers, the threat of the entry of new competitors, the threat of substitute products, the intensity of competitive rivalry and the bargaining power of suppliers. Michael Porter 5 forces analysis mostly focus on company external competitive environment. Below are the ways that can be used to overcome the limitation of Porters 5 forces. We can use SWOT analysis to overcome the limitation of Porters 5 forces, SWOT analysis is a strategic planning used to estimate the strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats involves in a business operation. It involves specifying the objective of the business operation or project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieving that objective. When the company has identified their strength they will put more effort to manufacturing or the best good. While the company have known or indentify the weakness they w ill correct it. Thus SWOT analysis will be used in decision making because it can 21provide a good framework for reviewing strategy, position and direction of a company or business proposition, or any other idea.  The strength of Acer is the support sales activities by understanding their customers businesses better and, able to keep fully up to date on their competitors business structure, strategy and prospects and qualify prospective partners and suppliers. PEST analysis can be used to overcome the limitation of Porters 5 forces. PEST stands for political, economic, social, and technological. PEST is a scan of the external macro-environment in which the firm operates. PEST analysis is a useful tool for the company to understand market growth or decline, and as such the position, potential and direction for a business. PEST analysis is a business measurement tool. Based on Acer strong research capabilities it allows them to determine the needs of their customers and their expectations. PEST analysis and market research findings can segment the market and develop cost effective ways of reaching them. This ultimately translates into strengthening Acer position in the market place and displacing competitors. The third way to overcome is the product life cycled (PLC) is 25a new product progresses through a sequence of stages from introduction to growth, maturity, and decline. Product life cycled is developed by Raymond Vernon. After a product moves through all these stages, its pricing, promotion, packaging, and distribution are re-evaluated and changed if required to prolong its life the life span of the product in the market. We can see how a product life cycle will go in the appendix 4. By preventing his product to fall at decline stage, Acer has a plan that is to upgrade his existing laptop into window 7 or by upgrading its storage volume this allow it to keep in trend with the latest window in the market. Value chain analysis is a concept from business management that was first described and popularized by Michael Porter in his 1985. Value chain analysis states how businesses receive raw materials as input, add value to the raw materials through various processes, and sell finished products to customers. By referring to appendix 5 will see the process of value chain analysis. Value chain analysis will help the company to specifically analyze and help create to a competitive advantage. Value chain is a very useful way to deliver maximum value to your consumer and to maximize the value of your product in the market. Acer has making a very wise decision that is by providing its product to have a 3 years warranty, thus customer will prefer to buy Acer because it has a longer period of warranty compare to other brand of laptop. Benchmarking will also be another way to provide solution for the Porters 5 forces. Benchmarking is the process of comparing the business processes and performance metrics including cost, cycle time, productivity, or quality to another that is widely considered to be an industry standard benchmark. There are 4 keys steps involving in the application of benchmarking that is understand in detail existing business processes, analyze the business processes of others, compare own business performance with that of others analyzed and implement the steps necessary to close the performance gap. Acer has used the benchmarking for role of key performance such as quality, distribution, supply chain management and pricing. The last way that I can mention to overcome or give solution is the six sigma. Six sigma is a business management strategy originally developed by Motorola. Six Sigma seeks to improve the quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of defects and controlling variability in manufacturing and business processes. By using the six sigma theory Acer has give a three year warranty on its laptop, this is to give confident to the customer that their lifespan is longer than other brand laptop. 4.0 Conclusion Acer is a laptop and computer manufacturer The Company owns the largest franchised computer retail chain in Taipei, Taiwan. Acer is an ISO 9001 and 14001 certified company, meaning their quality control and environmental management systems meet international standards. Porters 5 forces are a tool that helps company to understand the business environment more. The 5 forces are bargaining power of customers, the threat of the entry of new competitors, the threat of substitute products, the intensity of competitive rivalry and the bargaining power of suppliers. Acer has used these 5 forces to gain the competitive advantage, gaining the market share, and how to provide a win-win relationship with the supplier. Since Porters 5 forces does not really cover all the information that a company need, we have to used other analysis such as SWOT analysis, PEST analysis, product life cycled (PLC), Value chain analysis ,Benchmarking and six sigma . By using this analysis we can overcome the limita tion of Porters 5 forces. Focusing Oriented Counsellor: Career Development Reflection Focusing Oriented Counsellor: Career Development Reflection Dvonne Loring The following essay is a reflective piece on my growth as a Focusing oriented counsellor over the course of the semester. It will document my introduction to focusing as a subject, my experience as a Focuser and as a companion and the evolution of each throughout the semester. In addition, my understanding of the process and the development of my own existing skills and the acquisition of new skills will be stated. A final reflection on my relationship with Focusing as the subject draws to a close will also be included. Over the course of the semester, I have consolidated my understanding of Experiential Focusing, the concept of the felt sense and how they contribute to therapeutic healing. I began this subject with no knowledge of Focusing whatsoever. The idea of bringing my awareness and entering the body was daunting for me as I operate on a very cognitive level. Learning that experiential Focusing is a gentle process oriented approach to therapy that invites the utilization of the body’s rich wisdom to facilitate therapeutic change (Cornell, 1996) helped ease some of my subject related anxiety. I learnt that to access this inner knowledge, a person’s awareness is shifted inside and navigation is done with the enigmatic felt sense as a guide, rather than intellectualizing (Purton, 2007). The felt sense is the quintessential concept of Focusing and one of many key aspects and principles developed by Eugene Gendlin. It is important to note however, Gendlin did not invent Focusing, it is a natural skill that he discovered (Cornell, 1996). It took me some time to really grasp what the felt sense was as it is not an emotion nor a body sensation or an altered state. A felt sense is a subtle, whole body sense of a complex situation (Gendlin, 1996). The more I attuned to and became aware of my own felt senses through experiential practice, where I learnt how to describe it rather than interpret it, the deeper my understanding became of the subject as whole throughout the semester. I had to learn that it was about feeling, not analyzing (Purton, 2007). What Focusing does is it accesses the felt sense which draws from a place of emergent unconscious process that is ready to be put under the light of consciousness. It draws from the vast realm of knowledge from the edge of awareness and channels it into transformational potential through in the moment experiencing. Focusing allows us to dip below the surface of the explicit into the implicit (Silverton, 2014). Thus with the use of the Focusing process and the felt sense, I began to realize I was learning how to help clients engage with their feelings and facilitate here and now experiencing, which is the key to successful therapy (Purton C, 2007). The Focusing process helped me release the angst I was experiencing about being a Focuser, and it also helped me with the struggle I was experiencing towards the subject itself. The idea of being a Focuser initially triggered some dim anxiety in me. I was concerned about what I might come across inside. Learning how gentle Focusing is however, and welcoming whatever arises (Gendlin, 1996) as well as understanding that the Focusing ‘procedure involves the maintenance of a comfortable distance’ (Purton, 2007, Pg. 46) was reassuring for me. I began using the experiential practice sessions where I was the Focuser as an opportunity to explore my existing and very present resistance to the actual subject and its content. There was always something in me that was stopping me from fully embracing the subject matter. With use of the Focusing process, I was able to enter my body with that as my issue and get a full body sense of it. Simply being with my felt sense caused a felt shift – a moment of movement (Purton, 2007). Having this experience on several different occasions was uplifting for my relationship with the subject and also empowered me as a Focuser. It helped me understand that encouraging clients to know they are the experts will motivate them to ask, interrupt, ignore or even to simply have a voice when something does not feel right for them in a session. They have choice and are allowed to communicate their preferences about what they need from their therapist as a Focuser and from the process, as it is th eir process (Leijssen, 1998). In doing this, they have an opportunity to achieve a real sense of self-autonomy as I did, which is what this non-directive process empowers clients to accomplish (Purton, 2007). My understanding of the importance of presence strengthened my ability to be a companion. Being in the role of the therapist, I wanted to execute my learning soundly and accurately. I wanted to have the Focusing attitude which embodies presence, gentleness and the ability to be vulnerable (Leijssen, 1998) and to also employ facilitative language with the use of appropriate reflections and invitations rather than questions. I learnt that the philosophy behind this approach highlights that the focusing process is not a technique but a way of being; it is an attitude to embody (Purton, 2007). I had to learn how to facilitate the process while personifying the Focusing attitude; it was a matter of finding the delicate balance between the two so that the Focuser perceives the empathy and acceptance that is being offered to them (Purton C. , 2004). Whenever I was in the process and my mind became cluttered with the theory and how to execute the skills I was learning whilst trying to hold s pace for the Focuser, I would remind myself to just be; my being was much more therapeutic than my doing. Bringing my awareness to my Focuser became an anchor for me. Ironically, in my attempts to perfect my ability to be a Focusing-oriented counsellor, I was in fact pushing myself further away from the most important thing which was my presence (Purton, 2007). What I learnt to remember is that all of this takes place in the present moment (Silverton, 2014). By being with my client and putting my trust in being guided by their process reminded me that I was not the expert which in effect liberated me as a companion. I was able to consolidate my understanding of the Focusing process which was helpful for some of the difficulties I came across in my practice. Gendlin’s six step process helped me grasp each stage. The process incorporates (1) Clearing the space, (2) Felt sense, (3) Handle, (4) Resonating, (5) Asking and (6) Receiving (Purton, 2004). I found clearing the space a valuable method that can be used on its own or within the Focusing process, as a tool for stress reduction (Purton, 2004) through creating appropriate metaphoric distance. This practice can become a wonderful friend, offering a path to self-knowledge (Silverton, 2014). My experience with the process illustrated to me I was confident leading my Focuser in and coming out. Inviting a felt sense to emerge and getting a handle were the most difficult steps as it was hard initially for me to differentiate when my Focuser was describing ‘something’ or a ‘part of them’ as a pose to when they had discovered a felt sense. Sometimes an entire session would be checking in with the Focuser to see if a felt sense was going to emerge. With further practice, Gendlin’s steps became more of a guide for me. The process follows the material of the Focuser therefore the process cannot be rigid. The Focusing process is actually quite simple, but I found the complexities as a companion lie in the multitude of complex processes that include the language, terminology, how to reflect, how to invite and how to create the right amount of distance in order to follow the unfolding process with the Focusing attitude. Being aware of the subtle nuances of the Focuser in their tone, mannerisms and gestures was also important as in these are avenues to intricate possibilities for moving forward (Fleisch, 2009). The more I grappled with the process, the more I was able to identify areas for further improvement in my practice. In doing so I was learning how to deepen the client’s awareness to their own embodied knowledge (Fleisch, 2009). This subject gave me an opportunity to consolidate existing skills and develop a set of new skills. Core person-centred conditions such as presence, unconditional positive regard and empathy are all essential in the Focusing process. I gained further experiential practice as a companion at grounding myself with presence, holding space and meeting my client’s with unconditional positive regard. Despite majority of my Focuser’s having their eyes closed during their process, I would still mirror their non-verbal communication, as this helped me to remain present and was helpful in my attuning process. Once I had a reasonable theoretical understanding of the Focusing process I had to master the acquisition of new skills such as facilitative language used to support presence and to stay with the emerging process at hand. Reflecting is important as it helps the client know they are being understood. Reflections should follow the Focuser and their felt sense as this is the the rapist’s attempt to grasp what the client is experiencing by repeating back exactly what they are trying to say (Gendlin, 1996). It is done with a soft and gentle tone of voice which came quite naturally for me, and always precedes an invitation. I definitely found invitations were much more effective in accessing felt senses than asking questions. Questions run the risk of deviating from presence, and shift the client back to a cognitive level of thinking. Invitations encourage a friendly attitude towards the felt sense (Gendlin, 1996). Focusing is a constant intervention with its consistent checking in and checking back. By strengthening these existing and new skills, my facilitation to help clients to attend wholly personal issue improved. Thus they can open up fresh perspectives and new insights which is what Focusing offers (Silverton, 2014). My relationship with Experiential Focusing has grown over the semester as it coincides with my beliefs about what therapy encompasses. I respect the Experiential Focusing approach in that it is non-directive and follows the guided process of the Focuser. It really reinforces my true belief in every human being’s ability to self-actualise and my role as a Focusing-Oriented counsellor within the holistic framework aids in facilitating this. I deeply resonate with its gentle approach and how through presence, a client can feel heard, met and have their existence validated but to also have the opportunity to listen to and potentially build a relationship with their felt sense (Silverton, 2014) to access their own empowering knowledge. Focusing sees an individual in process, not as a problem or pathology. Rather diagnosing and curing, Focusing gives a person the opening to be and to allow. This was affirming for my learning and development as an aspiring person-centred, holistic co unsellor. The bulk of my learning in this subject came experientially. Cognitively it was a struggle to understand, but I found my inner understanding of fundamental Experiential Focusing concepts grew tremendously through actually participating in or observing the process. The more I understood what the felt sense was and became aware of my own, the more the comprehensive the theory became for me. Thus, Focusing taught me how to deal with ambiguity and vague ideas, and gave me the ability to simply sit with them. It comes as no surprise that the hard to recognise notion of the felt sense is hard to grasp in contrast to our social context where there is huge pressure in our technological culture to know (Silverton, 2014). We have lost trust in our bodies and our feeling (Cornell, 1996), forgetting that the body has sophisticated understanding and Focusing gives a means of accessing that. With Focusing being process-oriented means it is fluid. It can adapt to people varying a great deal in bein g able to sense what is going on in their bodies (Purton, 2004), ‘letting that which arises from the Focusing depths within a person define the therapist’s activity’ (Leijssen, 1998). This is at the core of person-centred methodology and my personal beliefs. Through theoretical learning and experiential practice, I have gained insight and deepened my self-awareness through participating in the Focusing process as a Focuser, observer and a companion. These have all contributed to my growth as a Focusing-Oriented counsellor over the semester, all of which have been essential for my learning as a holistic counsellor. I have embarked on a learning journey to have a comfortable relationship with strong feelings, to acknowledge them and listen to them using the Focusing method, and I now have the ability to invite a client for an opportunity to do the same. Focusing offers a safe and contained environment to access and explore the felt sense which has its own depths of meaning (Gendlin, 1996). By encouraging felt experience as a whole, one gains admission to an abundance of emotional self-healing. Bibliography Cornell, A. W. (1996). The Power of Focusing. Oakland: Raincoast Books. Fleisch, G. (2009). Right in Their Hands: How Gestures Imply the Bodys Next Steps in Focusing-Oriented Therapy. Person-Centred and Experiential Therapies, 173-188. Gendlin, E. (1996). Focusing-Oriented Psychotherapy. A Manual of the Experiential Method. New York: The Guilford Press. Leijssen, M. (1998). Focusing Microprocesses. In L. W. Greenberg, Handbook of Experiential Psychotherapy (pp. 121-154). New York: The Guilford Press. Purton, C. (2004). Person-Centred Therapy: Focusing-Oriented Approach. London: Palgrave Macmillian. Purton, C. (2007). The Focusing-Oriented Counselling Primer. Ross-on-Wey: PCCS Books. Silverton, S. (2014, October). How to Think Like a Poet and Make Better Decisions. Retrieved from British Focusing Association: http://www.focusing.org.uk

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

The Yellow Wallpaper and The Chrysanthemums -- Comparative, Allen, St

Restraints are set by parents on their children to aid with the developmental process and help with the maturity level. Restrictions and the ability to control exist in our society and our lives. We encounter restraints daily: job, doors, people, and the most frequently used and arduous become intangible. In the following stories tangible and intangible scenarios are presented. Autonomy, desires, and talents spurned by the husbands in John Steinbeck’s â€Å"The Chrysanthemums and Charlotte Gilman’s â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper.† The authors share views regarding a similar theme of male domination and imprisonment. â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† involves the treatment of a depressed woman who is driven insane in a male imposed detention in her own room. On the other hand, Elisa Allen in the â€Å"The Chrysanthemums† struggles internally to find her place in a fully male dominated society with definite gender roles. The mirror-like situations bring upon a different reaction for both the women in different ways. The importance of symbolism, control from their husbands, and the lack of a healthy marriage will be discussed in this paper in two stories. Elisa Allen and the narrator of â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† are both trapped in various ways and the sexuality leads to this entrapment. Elisa feels confined and limited; â€Å"the high grey-flannel fog of winter closed off the Salinas Valley from the sky and from all the rest of the world† (226). Trapped inside the house and feels isolated from the world outside. The chrysanthemums symbolize her scope of life where she devotes most of her time with this activity. The chrysanthemums, strong and thriving, portray Elisa’s current physical condition. She treats the chrysanthemums like her children; â€Å"she held the flower po... ...e husbands possess a male ego of power that leads to lack of understanding in their marriages. The wallpaper symbolizes the trapped narrator and the structure of the tradition. Also, Elisa’s chrysanthemums are discarded and the narrator’s feelings are disowned which portrays the rejection of women. Elisa ends up â€Å"crying weakly like an old woman† and settles for wine (233). The narrator’s actions lead to her husband fainting â€Å"but he did, and right across my path by the wall, so that I had to creep over him every time† (447). The narrator is insane and causes faintness in her husband, hoping that she now has an escape. To conclude, John Steinbecks â€Å"The Chrysanthemums† and Charloette Perkins â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† show two different outcomes mainly arisen due to being trapped inside an isolated house or a garden and having a limited life under a husband's control.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Cleo 5 to 7 as a New Wave Film Essay -- Movie Film Essays

Cleo 5 to 7 as a New Wave Film Agnes Varda is not only one of the few female directors of new wave cinema; she is also credited as having helped create the genre. Her short film La Point–Courte is considered by some as the first new wave film. Her first full length movie, Cleo 5 to 7 falls within this genre as well. It is the story of a young woman dying of cancer and how she sees the world in the context of time. We follow the singer Cleo as she changes into the woman Flora and as she does so she begins to look at time in a different manner. It is the way time is represented through the camera shots which really make this film part of its new wave genre. The movie begins with a five minute prologue that occurs during the credits in which we receive all the important aspects of the following 90 minute film. We see a fortune teller, or rather a shot of her hands while she turns over the tarot cards that are Cleo’s fortune. This scene uses a multitude of hand shots, contrasting the old woman’s and the young woman’s hands. During the scene there is a jump cut between from the old...

Sunday, August 18, 2019

OHare International Airport :: Chicago Airport

A plan to expand O'Hare International Airport has begun to look more promising, but backers of a proposed airport near Peotone said last week they don't expect the plan to change the debate over a third airport. "It's still not going to add air capacity, and won't solve their long-range problem," said Don Goff, chairman of the Third Airport Alliance. "I don't see it as any setback," he said of the plan to build more terminals and gates. Goff said that even if O'Hare expansion proponents later use the World Gateway project to justify building more runways, a third airport will still be needed. "They're still going to have to build another airport," Goff said. But those who hope plans for an airport near rural Peotone will be scrapped see the plan as a sign of hope. "I'm very happy about that," said Jill Holzaepfel of Peotone, who said she hopes the planes and traffic stay close to the city. "I chose to live out here on the farmland," she said, adding that those who are impacted by more noise and pollution at an expanding O'Hare chose to live near the airport. Some Peotone opponents propose expanding the airport in Gary, Ind., or building at another site. The major airlines that serve O'Hare International Airport and city officials reached a tentative agreement to move ahead with a $3.2 billion renovation at the world's second busiest airport, a city spokeswoman said. Mayor Richard Daley has called the project the "World Gateway Program." It has involved months of negotiations between the city and the two major carriers that serve O'Hare — United Airlines and American Airlines. "Right now, we have an agreement in principle," Chicago Department of Aviation spokeswoman Monique Bond said Friday night. "We feel confident that we're moving forward and we are pretty optimistic about the finality of the agreement." The renovation, which is expected to take eight years to complete, is expected to increase the number of boarding gates by at least 25 percent. It is also intended to increase the number of flights and make connections in and out of the airport smoother. "This is basically what we are doing to better use the existing facility with more efficiency," Bond said. She said the redesign will help accommodate the airlines' increased use of larger planes, such as the Boeing 777. While Bond would not confirm the number of new gates involved, a report appearing in next week's Crain's Chicago Business cites sources familiar with the negotiations saying

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Brutality of Slavery Essay

In history, slavery has been a large problem in The United States and has caused many issues. We know slavery as history, while people like Frederick Douglass and Harriet Jacobs knew slavery as their lives. Frederick Douglass was a man who was born and raised as a slave, he never knew his mother and watched many terrifying things as a child. Another known slave was Harriet Jacobs; she was a slave who was abused in many ways. Both of these slaves lived through hardship and turbulence growing up. Most people could not even fathom the pain and suffering these two slaves endured. They were considered to be chattel slaves. Chattel is a type of slavery. According to Dictionary. com chattel is â€Å"any article of tangible property other than land, buildings, and other things annexed to land. † Slaveholders feel as though their slaves have no rights and they are their own property. Most slaves during this time were chattel slaves and were treated very poorly by there slaveholders. In his essay on brutality toward slaves, Frederick Douglass shares some of the horrors that were his reality. As a slave himself, he understands from first-hand experience how badly slaves were treated. He mentions emotional and physical abuse he received from his slaveholder. He talked about how the slaves were not allowed to know how old they were or information that might expose them to more about their families. Douglass mentioned the fact that slaveholders would whip the slaves until bloody while making other slaves watch. Slaveholders would shoot and kill their slaves if they did not follow orders, Douglass acknowledges. Slaveholders would keep all personal information from their slaves. The fact that a slave would not have the right to know how old they are would create emotional hardship and eliminate an important sense of self. Some slaveholders would not allow the slave to know anything about his or her mother or father. They would give the slaves very little information so they could not investigate further. Douglass was one of the slaves who barely knew his own mother. The most he ever saw her was just a few times at night while he was sleeping. She would take the long trip to see him after a long day in the fields, but she would have to be back before morning came the next day. Only being able to see one’s mother three or four times in a person’s life, and not being able to know anymore information about one’s life, would be considered abuse in many ways. Whipping a slave was a very normal action in this time. Slaves, whether they ‘deserved’ it or not, could be whipped for many reasons. Douglass mentions many times when his slaveholder would whip his own aunt. Douglass said, â€Å"I have often been awakened at the dawn of day by the most heart-rending shrieks of an own aunt of mine, whom he used to tie up to a joist, and whip upon her naked back till she was literally covered with blood. † His slaveholder took great pleasure in whipping and torturing his slaves. It is heartbreaking knowing that it was considered socially and morally okay to commit such brutalities. Douglass talks about a time when a slave named Demby was shot and killed in front of an entire plantation of slaves. The slaveholder told Demby to come to him, but Demby refused, so the slaveholder took out his gun and shot him. A thrill of horror flashed through every soul upon the plantation†¦Ã¢â‚¬  said Douglass. The slaveholder said that he killed him because he was â€Å"unmanageable. † He also said that Demby was setting a bad example for the other slaves and if he did not take care of the problem, the other slaves would follow. Women played a vital role in slavery, the pain and suffering they had to endure was terrible. Women had to bear hardship in many different ways such as sexual abuse, chattel type slavery, and the relationship between the slaveholder, his wife and the slave. All of these rigorous situations are forced upon an African American woman creating emotional and physical abuse. While reading Incidences in the Life of a Slave Girl by Harriet Jacobs, one could notice a constant theme in the slaveholder’s ideology toward the slave. As brought up earlier, most slaves were chattel slaves, meaning that their slaveholders treated them as if they were property and with no respect. Jacobs says, â€Å"He told me I was his property; that I must be subject to his will in all things. † (Jacobs pg. 2). Obviously, Mr.  Flint treated Jacobs as if he had zero respect for her. Jacobs mid teen years is when her life as a slave girl escalated. Mr. Flint, her slaveholder had absolutely no respect for the fact that she was an innocent young girl. â€Å"My master began to whisper foul words in my ear. Young as I was, I could not remain ignorant of their import. † (Jacobs pg. 1). These actions were not uncommon in slaveholder/slave relationships because of the sense of ownership. The wife of the slaveholder and her relationship to the female slave, in this case being Jacobs, could be detrimental. Not only the relationship between the wife and the female slave is important in history, but it also creates a struggle between the African American female and the slaveholder. The wife could be considered psychotic because of the jealously placed in a relationship such as theirs. Jacobs mentioned thatâ€Å"†¦she spent many a sleepless night to watch over me. Sometimes I woke up, and found her bending over me. † Most people, whether in the same relationship as them or not would think that is weird and would have psychotic tendencies. Insidences in the Life of a Slave Girl and Both narratives written by Frederick Douglass and Harriet Jacobs were tools in the abolition of slavery. The narratives gave African Americans a voice. They brought international attention to the issues and brutality of slavery. This basically put pressure on the United States to address the issue. Also, the ideology of slavery is based on the belief that blacks are inferior to whites. When sociologists first began trying to explain inferiority, a big argument was that there was no African literature. These narratives really showed the eloquence of African people.